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About Computer Networking (or) Networking

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About NETWORKING

What is a network? A network is a network of two or more computers called a network. To do this, you need transmission media, network cables, air, switches, hubs, and routers.

Network type

Basically, a network is defined as a LAN, MAN, or WAN. A LAN is a local area network of computers connected within a building. LAN is the smallest network by area. MAN is a metropolitan area network that can connect within a city area.… WAN is a wide area network and a large network that connects all over the world. It is also called the network of the network because it is connected to many networks.

Why use a network?

We use it to share information and data on our computers. It is also used for communication… to share files and data as well as hardware devices. You can access files and folders shared by other computers without using floppy disks, cd discs, or USB sticks. The most obvious of the hardware devices are sharing a printer.

Topology

Topology is the process by which computers are connected to each other in groups.

Protocol

When connecting computers, we need to know the protocols. These are logical, not physical. Protocols are the same language used to connect different file types, different OS platforms, and communication devices. Suppose there are 3 people in Japan, so what language do we use to understand each other? English is an international language, and protocol is a computer language that was created to help computers communicate with each other around the world.

IP Address

You need to understand IP addresses in order for computers around the world to connect properly. An IP address is 32 bits and is divided into four 8-bit sections by a dot. Each 8-bit section is called an individual byte or octet. Valid values ​​range from 1 to 254 and must be reserved for 0 and 255. 0 is the network address and 255 is the broadcast address.

IP type and structure

There are two types of IP addresses: Public IP and Private IP

Private IPs are added on the LAN network Public IPs are added on the WAN network…. IPs are IPv4 and IPv6

IP VERSION 4 (IPv4) is an IP with 4 octets (for example, 192.168.1.10) used in dotted decimal format between octets.

192 = first Octet

168 = Second Octet

1 = Third Octet

10 = Fourth Octet

Of the four octets, the first octet can be used to determine whether it is a public IP or a private IP.





IP Classes

There are five classes of IP: class A, B, C, D, E. Class D, and E are not mentioned here, but only A, B, and C are the most commonly used in the world.

1 to 126 is class A (referring to First Octet)

B class from 128 to 191 (referring to First Octet)

C class 192 to 233 (referring to First Octet)

Private IP and Public

First Octet starts with 10 and is a private IP

First Octet starts with 172 and is a private IP

First Octet is a private IP starting with 192

First Octet starts with 169 and is a private IP

First Octet starts with 127 and is a private IP (localhost).

If you know these private IPs, you will be using the Private IP group you want to use depending on your LAN network.

If you have less than 254 computers on your LAN network, you should take a private group starting with 192. If your LAN network has 255 or more computers, you should take a private group starting with 172. If you have more than 60,000 computers on your LAN network, you should take a private group of 10 or more.

Network cable

If you look at Ethernet cables, you will see Cat 5, Cat 5e type. It is installed on the computer LAN port. It is called RJ 45 connector. Now, this connector is used to connect one computer to another. So you need to know how to connect the colors of the wires in this cable. This cable is called an unsuited twisted pair (UTP) cable. It has 8 wire cables.

This Ethernet cable is referred to as the T568-A and T568-B, so the T568-A is the T568-A cable storage method. Where the T-568A is used on both sides of the LAN head (as shown below), it is used to connect a computer to an intermediate switch or hub (also known as a straight-line method). Where the T-568B is used on both sides of Lan’s head (as shown in the figure below), it is used to connect a computer to an intermediate switch or hub (also called a direct connection method).

One LAN head is T-568A on one cable and T-568B on the other is used to connect between computers without a switch or hub (also called cross-connection). Since 2009, network cards have been able to connect such cables to either the T-568A or the T-568B.

Summary of Discussion

1. A network is a network of two or more computers.

2. The main network is defined as LAN, MAN, WAN. A LAN is a local area network and is a computer connected within a building. A LAN is the smallest network in an area. Area Network (WAN) is the largest area network in the world. It is also called the network of the network because it is connected to many networks.

3. Protocol is a language used to connect different file types to different OS platforms and communication devices.

4. There are five classes of IP: class A, B, C, D, E. Class D, and E are not mentioned here, but only A, B, and C are the most commonly used in the world.

1 to 126 is class A (referring to First Octet)

B class from 128 to 191 (referring to First Octet)

C class 192 to 233 (referring to First Octet).





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